Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2021-03-11 Origin: Site
The cold storage warehouse can be understood as an oversized refrigerator. Many types of materials require cold storage. Because of cross-season and cross-regional food transportation, more and more food needs to be refrigerated to keep fresh. For example, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat, tea, etc. all need to be stored at low temperatures. In addition, medicines and vaccines need to be stored at a low temperature to extend their validity period.
Therefore, the ambient temperature of the cold storage warehouse is very low, and the humidity is relatively high. For the operation of storage equipment and workers, compared with the normal inventory storage environment, the price and cost are relatively high. Therefore, the requirements on the shelf are also higher. Not only must the storage density be high, be able to withstand low temperature and humidity, but it also needs to be more conducive to storage management for stored products.
The cold storage plant racking of the cold storage warehouse is basically the same as the general storage rack, if it is not very low temperature, it is not much different from the manual sorting rack system. However, for the storage of large quantities and lower temperature items, the choice of refrigerated storage shelves still needs to be treated with care.
Cold storage warehouse can be divided into a high-temperature cold storage warehouse and a low-temperature cold storage warehouse. In a high-temperature cold storage warehouse, the product temperature needs to be controlled between 0°C and 4°C or 6°C. Products with more storage types are vegetables, fruits, fresh milk, cold meat, etc.
High-temperature cold storage is commonly used as a cold room drive in racking. The cold room drive in racking system has a large storage volume and is convenient for forklifts to enter and exit. It is a traditional high-density storage system. Forklifts drive into the shelves to access pallets. These pallets are placed on cantilever rails and can be moved within the rack system. This kind of system is relatively minimal in investment but requires relatively high requirements for forklift workers. For cold storage warehouse with a relatively large flow, more forklift workers may be required to operate. The investment cost of this kind of rack is low, the rack channel is integrated with the forklift operation channel, the warehouse area and space utilization are high, and the inventory is large. In the same aisle of the shelf, it is suitable to store items with large quantities, few items, and low frequency of in and out of the warehouse, or the items in the same aisle are the same batch of items out of the warehouse, which is a typical first in last out.
A low-temperature cold storage warehouse needs to control the product temperature at -18°C or -20°C. Products with more storage types are frozen meat; quick-frozen food, such as quick-frozen dumplings, quick-frozen noodles, ice cream, etc. A low-temperature cold storage warehouse is not suitable for people to work for a long time, which requires the use of automated storage systems for operations. The radio shuttle racking system is often used. A complete high-density storage system composed of shuttle pallet racks, shuttle trucks and forklifts. This high-efficiency storage method brings brand new options for improving warehouse space utilization. The radio shuttle racking system is a very popular semi-automatic system at present, which can realize semi-automation of cold storage warehouse with low investment. At the same time, it can also be combined with stackers, and warehouse management software.
The specific design of the cold storage warehouse rack systems should be operated by professionals with logistics knowledge, construction knowledge, and industry knowledge. Standard design procedures should be adopted, and plans should be compared. Only in this way can the ultimate needs of the enterprise be reached.
The cold storage warehouse is generally divided into two types, one is a traditional civil structure, and the other is a newly built integrated shelf cold storage specially used for cold storage. The civil structure generally uses thermal insulation materials on the walls and then designs the cold storage structure division, rack placement and operation system for the internal structure of the house. Generally, if you choose a rack system, you can contact the manufacturer to design a storage plan. The integrated cold storage is designed before construction. Generally, the wall is directly made of insulation materials, and shelves can be directly installed on the wall, which saves more space.
The cold storage warehouse needs to be divided into loading and unloading areas, storage areas, and in-out areas. Insulation materials should be used to separate each area. Cold storage racks are installed in the access area. The cold storage racks can be installed in a civil structure cold storage or can be installed in integrated cold storage with a storage rack. It is generally believed that cold storage with integrated storage racks can make full use of the space, and the space utilization efficiency is higher.
Choose the appropriate type of rack for the type of goods: if the weight of the item is heavier, you can use heavy-duty racks. If the weight is not too heavy, you can make full use of the space, you can use through racks or narrow aisle racks and use narrow aisle forklifts. The height of the racks can be used very high. Make full use of the height of cold storage pallet racking to make the best use of everything.
The FIFO cold storage warehouse racking has a good effect on perishable food and strictly control the date of the food. Drive-in racking is very suitable for storing high-density pallets in a compact space. Place the pallet on the horizontal rail by a forklift. It can run according to the FIFO inventory rotation model, which is very suitable for date-sensitive products. A radio shuttle racking system is a cost-effective cold storage method. Greatly improve speed and save labour.
Anti-collision facilities: The best protection measures for the shelf system at the bottom of the racking, use customized safety accessories to protect the pillars that are susceptible to impact. Prevent forklift collisions and protect the safety of the cold storage warehouse racks system and workers.
Shelf steel material: The steel application has specific requirements and should have good low-temperature toughness and ductility to avoid brittle failure. Common carbon structural steel Q235 commonly used in racks. Q235 has different grades of Q235A, Q235B, Q235C, Q235D, and Q235E, mainly because the impact temperature is different. A means no impact, B is above 20°C, C is above 0°C, D is above -20°C, E is above -40°C, the difference between A and E is the impact temperature in their respective performance s difference. The lower limit of the yield strength of Q345 is 345MPa, which has good comprehensive mechanical properties, low-temperature performance, good plasticity and weldability, and can be used in an environment of minus 40°C.
Surface spraying material: Considering the characteristics of frosting in the cold storage, the weight gain should be appropriately considered when calculating the shelf selection, and the customer's refrigeration and defrosting process should be considered for the corrosion resistance of the structural spray coating. Epoxy polyester electrostatic powder spraying is a common shelf surface treatment method. For cold storages with less stringent anti-corrosion and anti-rust requirements, the applicability is very good, economical and practical.
Welding process: The selection of welding rods in the cold storage should correspond to the material and welding process requirements of the welding base material, and ensure the welding quality of the welds.
In the face of low-temperature environments, steel has a transition from toughness to brittleness. As the ambient temperature decreases, the toughness of the rack system also decreases. The structural steel can withstand lower temperatures and is more durable in this respect. Cold rolled steel can be selected for manual sorting. If it is automatic sorting, there are more machinery. If the shelves are stacked high and are hit by other objects such as forklifts, the possibility of collapse is greater. Structural steel racks are recommended. Moreover, in the face of refrigeration and food, the turnover speed is fast, the durability is many, and the transportation cost is correspondingly increased.
The hole of cold storage warehouse rack main role is used to hook up the racks beam main frame, connecting the sub-shelf. Each hole is equidistant from each other, the purpose of doing so is to later allow each layer of storage space can float up and down an equal distance up and down, to meet the needs of the storage of different goods on the shelves on the space. The cold storage warehouse shelves use diamond-shaped holes and teardrop-shaped holes. This structure allows the various parts of the shelves to connect more stable, tighter interface, stronger bite, which can ensure that the warehouse shelves, especially heavy shelves and other more solid. And also reserved holes to install safety bolts, interpolation of further provisions of the device, in order to prevent in case of accidents to ensure the safety of personnel and shelves.
The diamond-shaped holes are inserted into the buttress holes to connect the columns and beams. It can be changed according to the needs of the customer's cargo height. The middle round hole can be fitted with screws to play a stabilizing role. It is suitable for mixing different products and adjusting the different heights required for each layer. It can be used on heavy-duty shelves with larger loads, whose crossbeams are subjected to greater downward pressure and tighter between the crossbeams and the columns as the load is heavier. If the column at the bottom of the shelf is deformed by forklift collision, which constitutes a safety hazard and affects the normal, just install the column disassembly, invert it, and then it can be used normally without replacing the column, which can save cost.
Teardrop-shaped holes: bar-shaped column, the column is provided with two rows of fixed holes, each row of fixed holes include round holes and teardrop-shaped holes, round holes and teardrop-shaped holes are set at equal intervals, the upper part of the teardrop-shaped hole is larger, the lower part is smaller, the upper and lower edges are circular arc, one of the two sides of the edges is tangent to the upper and lower two arcs, the other edge is parallel to the column edge and tangent to the lower small circle.
Butterfly hole: Because the hole of the column is shaped like a butterfly, using its own self-weight for locking, Butterfly hole is generally used for light shelves and medium-sized shelves.
Gourd hole: because the shape of the hole like a gourd, so the name gourd hole, this hole type is a new hole type in recent years, the use of this hole type shelves are relatively delicate, so commonly used in the home use of shelves, the load is also light.
Inverted eight holes: hole shape like the eight written backwards, so called inverted eight holes, mostly used for heavy-duty shelves, the load is larger, the installation is slightly more troublesome.